Vietnam flag Vietnam: Economic and Political Overview

The political framework of Vietnam

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Vo Van Thuong (since 2 March 2023)
Prime Minister: Pham Minh Chinh (since 5 April 2021)
Next Election Dates
Presidential: 2028
National Assembly: 2026
Main Political Parties
Since Vietnam is a one-party state, only The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is legally allowed to hold official power.
Executive Power
The President of Vietnam is the incumbent head of state and the nominal commander in chief of the military of Vietnam, chairing the Council on National Defence and Security. The president is considered to hold the second most powerful position in the Vietnamese political system after the General Secretary of the Communist Party. The President and General Secretary positions can be held by the same person at the same time.
The Prime Minister of Vietnam is the head of government, presiding over a council of ministers composed of a deputy Prime Minister and Ministers and Heads of ministerial-level agencies. The President is elected by the parliament from among its members for a five-year term. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President from among the members of the parliament as head of the government. The government is appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister and ratification of the parliament.
Legislative Power
The National Assembly of Vietnam is the unicameral legislature of the state, composed of 499 members. All members of the Council of Ministers are derived from the National Assembly. Parliament members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; however, almost all are members of the Communist Party. According to the country's constitution, the National Assembly is the highest representative body of the people and the only organisation with legislative powers. It has a broad mandate to oversee all government functions.

Indicator of Freedom of the Press


The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:

Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Not Free
Political Freedom:

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


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Latest Update: May 2024