Turkey flag Turkey: Operating a Business in Turkey

Work conditions in Turkey

The Active Population in Figures

Labour Force 32,833,54933,318,94132,317,036

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database

Total activity rate 57.55%58.08%58.09%
Men activity rate 78.14%78.39%77.95%
Women activity rate 37.45%38.15%38.54%

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database

Employed Persons, by Occupation (% of Total Labour Force) 2015
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 20.4%
Manufacturing 18.7%
Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 13.9%
Construction 7.2%
Public administration and defence; compulsory social security 5.5%
Accommodation and food service activities 5.4%
Education 5.3%
Administrative and support service activities 4.9%
Transportation and storage 4.2%
Human health and social work activities 4.0%
Professional, scientific and technical activities 2.8%
Financial and insurance activities 1.1%
Information and communication 1.0%
Real estate activities 0.8%
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 0.6%
Arts, entertainment and recreation 0.6%
Mining and quarrying 0.4%
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 0.4%
For Further Statistics
Ministry of Development

Return to top

Working Conditions

Legal Weekly Duration
45 hours
Retirement Age
The retirement age is 58 for women and 60 for men.
Working Contracts
Work contracts are governed by individual negotiation. The formality of the work contract and the conditions of dismissal are rigid (dismissals must be justified only if the firm has more than 30 employees).
Labour Laws
Doing Business: Turkey, to obtain a summary of labour regulations that apply to local enterprises

Return to top

Cost of Labour

Minimum Wage
In 2020, the national minimum wage in Turkey is fixed at 440.3 € per month (2,943 Turkish liras).
Average Wage
A person working in Turkey typically earns around 7,830 TRY per month.
Social Contributions
Social Security Contributions Paid By Employers:

Total social contributions paid by employees are 22.5%

  • Short-term social security contributions 2%
  • Disability, old age, death 11%
  • General health insurance 7.5%
  • Unemployment  2%

Social Security Contributions Paid By Employees:

All employees, including foreign nationals, are subject to compulsory social security. Total social contributions paid by employees are 15%

  • Disability, old age, death 9%
  • General health insurance 5%
  • Unemployment 1%

Return to top

Social Partners

Social Dialogue and Involvement of Social Partners
Unions in Turkey are generally not that powerful, though they are stronger in the public or semi-public sectors.
DISK: Confederation of Progressive Trade Unions of Turkey
Turk-Is: Confederation of Turkish Trade Unions
KESK: Confederation of Public Employees Trade Unions
Unionisation Rate
The unionisation rate in Turkey is currently relatively low. According to OECD data, trade union density was 6.3% in 2013, a steep decline from 28% in 2000.
Labour Regulation Bodies
Ministry of Labour and Social Security
Turkish Industry and Business Association
Turkish Confederation of Employer Associations

Return to top

Any Comment About This Content? Report It to Us.


© Export Entreprises SA, All Rights Reserved.
Latest Update: June 2022

Return to top