Poland flag Poland: Operating a Business in Poland

Work conditions in Poland

The Active Population in Figures

Labour Force 18,390,67618,318,73418,204,932

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database

Total activity rate 69.85%70.41%70.85%
Men activity rate 76.96%77.40%78.12%
Women activity rate 62.70%63.37%63.51%

Source: International Labour Organization, ILOSTAT database

Employed Persons, by Occupation (% of Total Labour Force) 2015
Manufacturing 19.3%
Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 14.5%
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 11.5%
Education 7.7%
Construction 7.5%
Public administration and defence; compulsory social security 6.7%
Human health and social work activities 5.9%
Transportation and storage 5.9%
Professional, scientific and technical activities 3.5%
Administrative and support service activities 2.7%
Financial and insurance activities 2.5%
Information and communication 2.3%
Accommodation and food service activities 2.1%
Mining and quarrying 1.4%
Arts, entertainment and recreation 1.3%
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 1.1%
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 1.1%
Real estate activities 1.1%
For Further Statistics
Office of statistics GUS

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Working Conditions

Legal Weekly Duration
40 hours
Retirement Age
60 for women and 65 for men, but following the revision of the pension system in 2012, the retirement age will be gradually increased to 67.
Working Contracts
Employment agreements can have a fixed term or an indefinite term. It is possible to enter into a separate contract for a trial period of up to three months.

Legal measures govern work contracts; collective agreements and individual negotiation complete them, but to a lesser extent.
The formality of work contracts and the conditions of hiring and dismissal are extremely rigid.

Labour Laws
Consult Doing Business Website, to obtain a summary of the labor regulations that apply to local entreprises.

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Cost of Labour

Minimum Wage
As of 1 January 2020, the minimum wage is EUR 611 per month (Eurostat)
Average Wage
The average hourly labour cost in 2019 was estimated at EUR 10.7 (Eurostat), well below the average hourly labor cost in the EU-27, which was EUR 27.7.
According to the OECD, Polish people earn USD 27 046 per year on average, much less than the OECD average of USD 43 241.
Social Contributions
Social Security Contributions Paid By Employers: Pension fund (9.76%), disability fund (6.50%), accident insurance (0,67% - 3,33%), labour fund contribution (2.45%), Employees' Guaranteed Benefits fund contribution (0.10%)
Social Security Contributions Paid By Employees: Old age pension (9.76%), disability insurance (1.50%), sickness benefits (2.45%), health insurance (9%)

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Social Partners

Social Dialogue and Involvement of Social Partners
The law provides for the rights of workers to establish and join independent trade unions, bargain collectively, and conduct legal strikes, but there are limitations. Violations of workers’ rights to organise, join unions and to strike, as well as anti-union discrimination occur. There are a few unions: the free independent union of Poland (NSZZ), the alliance of all Polish unions (OPZZ) and the Polish union of teachers (ZNP).
Solidarnosc (NSZZ)
All-Poland Alliance of Trade Unions (OPZZ)
Polish union of teachers (ZNP)
Unionisation Rate
Union membership has been declining and is currently estimated at 12% of workers.
Labour Regulation Bodies
Ministry of labor and social policy

Find out more about Operating a Business in Poland on GlobalTrade.net, the Directory for International Trade Service Providers.

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Latest Update: June 2022

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