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Foreign trade figures of Poland

Foreign Trade in Figures

Poland is open to international trade, which represents 124% of its GDP (World Bank, latest data available). The geographical location gives Poland strategic importance: the country is situated halfway between Paris and Moscow and between Stockholm and Budapest, and it has important ports that are connected to the North Sea through the Baltic Sea. In addition, the country constitutes an excellent place for the export of merchandise to the former Soviet republics. According to figures by Statistics Poland, the country mainly exports machinery and transport equipment (35.9%), manufactured goods (18.2%), food and live animals (11.3%), and chemicals and related products (9.9%). Imports are led by similar product categories: machinery and transport equipment (30.9%), manufactured goods (16.3%), chemicals and related products (14.3%), and food and live animals (6.6%).

In 2022, the main trading partners were Germany (27.8%), the Czech Republic (6.6%), France (5.7%) and the United Kingdom (4.9%); while the top import origins were Germany (20.2%), China (14.8%), Italy (4.6%), the U.S. (4.3%), and Russia (4.2%). Overall, the EU accounted for 75.6% of Poland’s total exports and 51.3% of its imports (data Statistics Poland).

Since Poland became a member of the European Union, its exports have increased consistently. The country historically had a structurally negative trade balance; nevertheless, since 2013 this trend has reversed: when computing both goods and services, in 2022 Poland had a positive trade balance estimated at 1.4% of its GDP (it was 3.3% one year earlier - World Bank). According to data from WTO, in 2022 the country exported USD 360.5 billion worth of goods (+5.8% year-on-year), whereas imports stood at USD 381.1 billion (+11.4% y-o-y). Concerning services, exports stood at USD 95.7 billion (+17.8% y-o-y), with imports increasing at a similar pace (+15.7% y-o-y, to USD 57.4 billion). The latest figures from Statistics Poland show that foreign trade turnover in January-October 2023 in exports at current prices amounted to USD 318 billion (marking an increase of 4.1% on the same period one year earlier), while imports stood at USD 306.6 billion (-5.3% y-o-y). The overall balance was positive by USD 11.4 billion, while in the same period of 2022 year, it was negative and amounted to USD 18.1 billion. The EU accounted for 74.8% of exports and 53.9% of imports.

 
Foreign Trade Values 20182019202020212022
Imports of Goods (million USD) 268,959265,282261,626342,118381,187
Exports of Goods (million USD) 263,569266,595273,835340,634360,542
Imports of Services (million USD) 43,11743,52240,25249,60957,415
Exports of Services (million USD) 68,42870,46566,40681,28295,785

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20182019202020212022
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 103.5102.7100.3112.4122.3
Trade Balance (million USD) -13,240-4,8788,111-8,727-25,545
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 12,10022,06534,31922,95512,765
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 7.53.2-2.416.15.5
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 6.85.3-1.112.54.5
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 50.749.547.354.560.6
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 52.753.253.057.961.7

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20232024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)2027 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) -2.41.34.24.24.0
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) -7.22.35.25.14.2

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Poland is a member of the following international economic organisations: IMF, European Union, ICC, Central European Initiative (CEI), WTO, OECD, Schengen Convention, among others. For the full list of economic and other international organisations in which participates Poland click here. International organisation membership of Poland is also outlined here.
Free Trade Agreements
The complete and up-to-date list of Free Trade Agreements signed by Poland can be consulted here.
 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2022
Germany 27.8%
Czech Republic 6.6%
France 5.7%
United Kingdom 4.8%
Netherlands 4.6%
See More Countries 50.4%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2022
Germany 20.9%
China 13.1%
Italy 4.6%
United States 4.4%
Netherlands 3.7%
See More Countries 53.1%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

342.8 bn USD of products exported in 2022
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 4.4%
Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor,...Electric accumulators, incl. separators therefor, whether or not square or rectangular; parts thereof (excl. spent and those of unhardened rubber or textiles) 2.8%
Automatic data-processing machines and units...Automatic data-processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 2.3%
Monitors and projectors, not incorporating...Monitors and projectors, not incorporating television reception apparatus; reception apparatus for television, whether or not incorporating radio-broadcast receivers or sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus 2.1%
Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats...Furniture and parts thereof, n.e.s. (excl. seats and medical, surgical, dental or veterinary furniture) 1.7%
See More Products 86.7%
358.6 bn USD of products imported in 2022
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 4.6%
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 3.2%
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals 2.5%
Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles...Parts and accessories for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705, n.e.s. 2.5%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 1.7%
See More Products 85.5%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

To go further, check out our service Import-Export Flows.

 

Main Services

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

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Latest Update: April 2024

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