Peru flag Peru: Economic and Political Overview

The political framework of Peru

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Pedro Castillo (since 28 July 2021)
Vice President: Dina Boluarte (since 28 July 2021)
Prime Minister: Aníbal Torres (since 8 February 2022)
Next Election Dates
Presidential: 2026
Congress of the Republic of Peru: 2026
Main Political Parties
Peru has a multi-party system and it is difficult for a single political party to secure an absolute majority in the Congress. Thus, political groups often work with each other to form coalition alliances consisting of smaller parties. The main parliamentary forces to secure above 10 seats the country are:

- Free Peru (PL): left-wing to far-left, socialism, Marxism
- Popular Force (FP): right-wing, fujimorism, conservatism, right-wing populism
- Popular Renewal (RP): right-wing to far-right, social conservatism, economic liberalism, anti-immigration
- Popular Action (AP): centre to centre-right, reformism, nationalism, paternalistic conservatism
- Alliance for Progress (APP): centre-right, conservative liberalism, progressivism, populism
- Go on Country – Social Integration Party (AvP): centre-right to right-wing, liberal conservatism, economic liberalism
- Together for Peru (JP): centre-left to left-wing, democratic socialism, progressivism
- Podemos Peru (PP): centre-right to right-wing, social conservatism, populism, protectionism
- We Are Peru (SP): centre-right, social conservatism, Christian democracy, Christian humanism

Executive Power
The President is the chief of the state and head of the government, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and holds executive powers which include implementation of the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the country. The President is elected by popular vote for a five-year term (not eligible for an immediate re-election) and appoints the Council of Ministers (cabinet) and Prime Minister to serve for five-year terms as well. All Presidential decree laws or draft bills sent to parliament must be approved by the Council of Ministers. The first and second vice presidents are also popularly elected, but have no constitutional functions unless the president is unable to discharge his duties.
Legislative Power
The legislature is unicameral. The parliament - called Congress - consists of 130 seats, with its members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms. Congress ratifies treaties, authorises government loans, and approves the government budget. The President has the power to veto acts of the legislature, and in turn a supermajority (generally two-thirds majority) of legislators may act to override the veto. The president has the power to block legislation with which the executive branch does not agree.
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

Definition:

The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:
91/180
 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Definition:

The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Ranking:
Free
Political Freedom:
3/7

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House

 

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Latest Update: September 2022

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