Kazakhstan flag Kazakhstan: Economic and Political Overview

Foreign trade figures of Kazakhstan

Foreign Trade in Figures

Kazakhstan is open to international trade, which represents 68% of its GDP (World Bank, latest data available). The country has an export-oriented economy that is highly dependent on shipments of oil and related products. In January-September 2023, the Republic of Kazakhstan primarily exported goods such as crude oil and crude oil products derived from bituminous minerals (54.2%), refined copper and raw copper alloys (4.3%), copper ores and concentrates (3.9%), radioactive chemical elements, and radioactive isotopes (3.3%), as well as ferroalloys (3%) and wheat and meslin (2.6%). Regarding imports, Kazakhstan's major imports comprised cars (5.2%), telephone sets (3.1%), bodies and cabins (2.7%), medicinal products (2.2%), parts and accessories of motor vehicles (2%), and oil and petroleum products (1.7% - data Kazakh Bureau of National Statistics).

In the same period, Kazakhstan's primary export partner countries included Italy (18.8%), China (18%), Russia (12.3%), Netherlands (5.8%), the Republic of Korea (5.6%), and Turkey (5.1%). In terms of imports, the main partner countries were Russia (26.7%), China (25.5%), Germany (5.1%), USA (4.5%), the Republic of Korea (3.8%), and Turkey (3.4%). Russia and Kazakhstan have undertaken joint projects in many areas, including energy. The government aims to improve the country's integration abroad to increase investment in the country. The country has been a WTO member since 2015 and has trade agreements with many countries in its region. It is also a member of the Eurasian Economic Union (Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan), and the Common Economic Zone (Belarus and Russia). The Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (EPCA) was signed in 2015 between the country and the European Union, and a revised version entered into force in March 2020.

The country has been recording trade surpluses since 1998 mainly due to the rise in shipments of oil and other commodities. As oil and gas are among Kazakhstan's main exports, the country's trade balance is affected by global commodity prices. In January-September 2023, Kazakhstan's foreign trade turnover amounted to USD 101,973.2 million and increased by 2.4% in nominal terms compared to January-September 2022. This included exports of USD 57,498.3 million (-10.2% less due to lower hydrocarbon prices) and imports of USD 44,475 million (+25% - data Kazakh Bureau of National Statistics). According to the latest figures available from the World Bank, the country’s trade balance in goods and services was positive by 15.4% of its GDP in 2022, compared to 8.6% one year earlier.

 
Foreign Trade Values 20192020202120222023
Imports of Goods (million USD) 37,75737,22241,17150,93460,655
Exports of Goods (million USD) 57,30946,44760,62584,59378,533
Imports of Services (million USD) 11,5418,4468,0359,51813,028
Exports of Services (million USD) 7,7545,2085,9357,96810,716

Source: World Trade Organisation (WTO) ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Indicators 20182019202020212022
Foreign Trade (in % of GDP) 63.564.957.057.5n/a
Trade Balance (million USD) 24,03818,4216,00924,22935,660
Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD) 19,27714,6342,77222,20934,167
Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 6.614.9-9.0-2.7n/a
Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change) 9.62.0-11.32.0n/a
Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 25.928.426.524.0n/a
Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP) 37.636.430.533.5n/a

Source: World Bank ; Latest available data

Foreign Trade Forecasts 20232024 (e)2025 (e)2026 (e)2027 (e)
Volume of exports of goods and services (Annual % change) 15.54.912.72.55.1
Volume of imports of goods and services (Annual % change) 26.36.04.13.63.5

Source: IMF, World Economic Outlook ; Latest available data

Note: (e) Estimated Data

 
International Economic Cooperation
Kazakhstan is a member of the Organization of Shanghai Cooperation, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Common Economic Area and the Organization of Economic Cooperation.
 

Main Partner Countries

Main Customers
(% of Exports)
2022
China 15.6%
Netherlands 6.5%
Türkiye 5.6%
South Korea 5.4%
Uzbekistan 4.4%
See More Countries 62.5%
Main Suppliers
(% of Imports)
2022
China 21.9%
Germany 4.5%
United States 3.8%
Türkiye 3.2%
South Korea 3.1%
See More Countries 63.5%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

Main Products

84.4 bn USD of products exported in 2022
Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude 55.6%
Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought ...Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excl. copper alloys of heading 7405) 4.4%
Ferro-alloysFerro-alloys 3.8%
Radioactive chemical elements and radioactive...Radioactive chemical elements and radioactive isotopes, incl. their fissile or fertile chemical elements and isotopes, and their compounds; mixtures and residues containing these products 3.1%
Copper ores and concentratesCopper ores and concentrates 2.8%
See More Products 30.2%
50.0 bn USD of products imported in 2022
Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702) 3.6%
Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular...Telephone sets, incl. telephones for cellular networks or for other wireless networks; other apparatus for the transmission or reception of voice, images or other data, incl. apparatus for communication in a wired or wireless network [such as a local or wide area network]; parts thereof (excl. than transmission or reception apparatus of heading 8443, 8525, 8527 or 8528) 3.0%
Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses "incl. those in the form of transdermal administration" or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) 2.7%
Automatic data-processing machines and units...Automatic data-processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, n.e.s. 2.4%
Bodies, incl. cabs, for tractors, motor vehicles...Bodies, incl. cabs, for tractors, motor vehicles for the transport of ten or more persons, motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose motor vehicles of heading 8701 to 8705 2.1%
See More Products 86.1%

Source: Comtrade, 2023. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

 
 

To go further, check out our service Import-Export Flows.

 

Main Services

7.8 bn USD of services exported in 2022
59.39%
19.01%
7.27%
4.36%
2.92%
2.50%
2.05%
1.87%
0.53%
0.08%
0.01%
8.9 bn USD of services imported in 2022
30.29%
27.28%
24.68%
5.30%
3.37%
2.16%
2.09%
1.70%
1.37%
1.16%
0.61%

Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2024. Because of rounding, the sum of the percentages may be smaller/greater than 100%.

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Latest Update: April 2024

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