India flag India: Economic and Political Overview

The political framework of India

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Ram Nath Kovind (since 25 July 2017) - BJP
Vice President: M. Venkaiah Naidu (since 11 August 2017) - BJP
Prime Minister: Narendra Modi (since 26 May 2014) – BJP
Next Election Dates
Presidential: July 2022
Legislative: April-May 2024
Current Political Context
In May 2019, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi was re-elected with a broad mandate for a second five-year term, and the ruling coalition is expected to stay in power until the end of its term, in 2024. Modi’s second mandate focuses on job creation, the liberalisation of the economy, and infrastructure investment, while also tackling corruption and promoting Hindu nationalism. Modi's nationalist agenda, however, has dampened foreign investors, who are keen on secular policies. In 2021, India began its two-year tenure as a non-permanent member of the UNSC, marking the eighth time the country has set on the council. Furthermore, 2021 saw a year of mass protests by Indian farmers against controversial agricultural reforms. The government was supposed to introduce three laws that loosened rules around the sale, pricing and storage of farm produce - rules which have protected farmers from the free market for decades. However, as a result of the protests, Modi repealed the agricultural reform. Furthermore, India is still opposed to joining the RCEP, mostly in order to protect local farmers and industrial interests, which could lead the country to lose market shares in the world’s largest trading bloc. Still, India has been seeking to resume trade agreement negotiations with the EU and the U.S. (10.7%), which have been interrupted since 2013.
Main Political Parties
- Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP): right-wing, pro-Hindu, nationalist ideology; heads the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) coalition and has been the ruling political party of India for the past eight years;
- Indian National Congress (INC): centre to centre-left, big tent party, social democratic, secular; a major party involved in the independence movement; heads the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) opposition coalition;
- Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP): centre-left, social equality. India's third major political party, whose electorate is mainly composed of Dalits and low castes.

Other notable parties:
- All India Trinamool Congress (AITC): centre to centre-right, Bengali nationalist, populist
- Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK): centre-left, social democratic, regionalist
- Biju Janata Dal (BJD): centre to centre-left, social democratic, liberal, populist
- Shiv Sena (SS): far-right, Hindu nationalism, conservative, populist
- Telugu Desam Party (TDP): centre-right, neoliberal, populist, regionalist
- Telegana Rashtra Samithi (TRS): centre-right, regionalist, conservative
- Communist Party of India (CPI): far-left, Communist, Marxist-Leninist
- Nationalist Congress Party (NCP): centre to centre-left, nationalist
- National People's Party (NPP): centre to centre-left, regionalist, ethnocentrist

Executive Power
The President is the Chief of State and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. He/she is indirectly elected for a five-year term by an electoral college, which consists of elected members of both houses of Parliament as well as the legislative assemblies of each of India's states and territories.
The Prime Minister is the Head of Government and is chosen by Lok Sabha members (House of the People, lower chamber) of the majority party, following legislative elections, to serve a term of five years. The President, on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, appoints the Cabinet.
Legislative Power
The Indian legislature is bicameral. The Parliament consists of the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). The Council of States has 245 members serving a six-year term, while the House of the People has 543 members serving a five-year term.
 

Indicator of Freedom of the Press

Definition:

The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:
142/180
 

Indicator of Political Freedom

Definition:

The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Ranking:
Free
Political Freedom:
2/7

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House

 

Return to top

Any Comment About This Content? Report It to Us.

 

© Export Entreprises SA, All Rights Reserved.
Latest Update: November 2022

Return to top