Bangladesh flag Bangladesh: Economic and Political Overview

The political framework of Bangladesh

Political Outline

Current Political Leaders
President: Mohammed Shahabuddin (since 24 April 2023)
Prime minister: Sheikh Hasina (since 6 January 2009)
Next Election Dates
Presidential: 2028
House of the Nation: 2029
Main Political Parties
Following the 2024 election, the main political parties represented in the parliament are:

- Awami League (AL): governing party, centre to centre-left. It is the ruling party since 2009;
- Workers Party of Bangladesh (WPB): left-wing to far-left, communism, marxism-leninism;
- Jatiya Party (JP): centre-right to right-wing;
- Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (JSD): left-wing, socialism;
Bangladesh Kalyan Party (BKP): radical centre, nationalism.

Executive Power
The Head of State, the President of the Republic, is elected for a 5-year term by the Parliament. The President of Bangladesh has a representative role, as the Prime Minister holds most executive powers. The latter is appointed by the President and must be a member of the majority party in the parliament. The government is composed of ministers selected by the Prime Minister.
Legislative Power
Legislative power is vested in a unicameral parliament called the House of Nations or Jatiya Sangsad. 300 of its 350 members are elected by direct universal suffrage for a five-year term, whereas 50 members - reserved for women only - are indirectly elected by the House of the Nation membership by proportional representation vote using a single transferable vote method. All members serve 5-year terms.

Indicator of Freedom of the Press


The world rankings, published annually, measures violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire incorporating the main criteria (44 in total) to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. This questionnaire was sent to partner organisations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).

World Rank:

Indicator of Political Freedom


The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.

Partly Free
Political Freedom:

Political freedom in the world (interactive map)
Source: Freedom in the World Report, Freedom House


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Latest Update: April 2024